Topic: PT Supervision Ratios


Supervision Ratio 40
No Supervision Ratio 13

PT Supervision Ratios

State Supervision Ratio Personnel Included in the Supervision Ratio
PTAs Aides Students Temporary License Supervised Clinical Practice
Alabama 4 (Reference: AL Admin Code 700-X-3-.03(11)) Yes
Alaska 3 (Reference: 12 AAC 54.500.(e)) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Arizona 3 (Reference: AZ Regulations R4-24-303.C) Yes Yes Yes Yes

Rather than tempory licenses, AZ issues interim permits
Arkansas No Supervision Ratio
California 2 PTAs + 1 aide (Reference: CA Business and Professions Code, Div 2.Chapter 5.7. Article2. Sec. 23.2622.(b-c)) Yes

A physical therapist shall not supervise more than two physical therapist assistants at one time to assist the physical therapist in his or her practice of physical therapy.

A physical therapist may utilize the services of one aide engaged in patient-related tasks to aid the physical therapist in his or her practice of physical therapy.
Colorado 4 (Reference: 4 CO Code of Regulations 732-1.201.B.1.)

B. A physical therapist is responsible for providing adequate or proper supervision and/or direction to a person not licensed as a physical therapist pursuant to section 12-41-115(1)(e), C.R.S.
Yes Yes Yes
Connecticut No Supervision Ratio
Delaware 2 (Reference: DE Admin Code Title 24. 2600.1.2.8) Yes
District of Columbia 3 (Reference: DC Municipal Regulations 6710.11) Yes Yes Yes Yes
West Virginia 4 (Reference: WV Admin Code §16-1-8.1.c) Yes Yes Yes
Florida No Supervision Ratio (Reference: FL Admin Code 64B17-6.007(8))

The number of unlicensed personnel participating in patient care tasks or activities, at any one given time shall be determined by the physical therapist dependent upon the individual practice setting, and the individual therapeutic needs of the patients supervised by the physical therapist or physical therapist assistant while assuring for quality care of the patients.
Georgia 2 (Reference: GA Rules of PT Board 490-2-.04(e ) and 490-8-.02(c )) Yes

A licensee of this chapter may supervise a maximum of two (2) physical therapy aides when they are aiding the licensee's provision of patient evaluation and intervention.

The supervising therapist will supervise no more than 2 trainees at one time.
Hawaii 3 (Reference: HI Admin Rules §16-110-4(d)1-3) Yes Yes Yes
Idaho 2 PTA / 3 PTs (Reference: ID Admin Code

PTs: two full-time PTAs and up to one additional nonlicensed personnel under one PT
PTAs: At no time, the number of physical therapist assistant students or supportive personnel, or a combination thereof, be more than twice in number of such PTA(s) providing physical therapy treatment at any physical therapy practice or site.
Yes Yes Yes
Illinois No Supervision Ratio
Indiana 3 (Reference: 844 IN Admin Code 6-1-2(g)(3))

If the daily PTA/PT consultation is not face-to-face, the PT or MD may not supervise more than the equivalent of 3 full-time PTAs.
Kansas 4 (Reference: K.A.R. 100-29-16.(g)) Yes
Kentucky 4 (Reference: 201 KAR 22:053.Section 4 (1)(a)) Yes Yes
Louisiana 5 (Reference: LA Admin Code §339.A)

Louisiana has a cap of 5 maximum, however there are individual limits for number of PTAs or technicians (4), provisional license (1), or students (5)
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Maine No Supervision Ratio
Maryland No Supervision Ratio
Massachusetts Professional Judgment (Reference: 259 Code MA Regulations 5.02(3)(a-b))
Michigan 4 (Reference: MI Admin Code R338.7138 Rule 38(4)) Yes
Minnesota 2 (Reference: MN Statute 148.706) Yes
Mississippi 4 (Reference: MS Regulations Part 3103 Rule 8.2.2) Yes Yes
Missouri 4 (Reference: 20 CSR 2150-3.090(2)) Yes
Montana 2 (Reference: MT Code Annotated. 37-11-105(2)) Yes Yes Yes
Nebraska 2 (Reference: 172 NAC 137-008.1) Yes
Nevada 3 (Reference: NAC 640.594.2.e)

Maximum of 3 individuals from all groups may be supervised at any one time, however a max of 2 of any one type of personnel may be supervised at any one time.
Yes Yes Yes Yes
New Hampshire No Supervision Ratio
New Jersey 2 (Reference: NJ Admin Code 13:39A-7.1b) Yes
New Mexico 3 (Reference: NMAC

A physical therapist may not be responsible for the direction and supervision of more than three full-time physical therapist assistants, or three FTE’s (full-time equivalency totaling 120 work hours per week) requiring supervision, including temporary physical therapists, temporary physical therapist assistants, and licensed physical therapist assistants. A licensed physical therapist may only supervise unlicensed aides working as care-giving assistive personnel, provided the assistive personnel’s combined full time equivalency does not exceed 120 hours per week.
Yes Yes Yes
New York No Supervision Ratio
North Carolina 4 (Reference : NYSED Physical Therapy Practice Guideline 5.9)

A PT may not supervise more than four persons on a limited permit.
North Dakota 3 (Reference: NDAC 61.5-05-01-05.)

No more than 2 PTAs may be supervised.
Yes Yes
Ohio No Supervision Ratio
Oklahoma No Supervision Ratio
Oregon 2 (Reference: OR Admin Rules 848-020-0030.(3)) Yes
Pennsylvania 3 (Reference: PA Code Chapter 40.171.(c)) Yes
Puerto Rico No Supervision Ratio
Rhode Island No Supervision Ratio
South Carolina 3 (Reference: SC Regulations 101.09) Yes
South Dakota 2 (Reference: SD Codified Law 36-10-35.8) Yes
Tennessee 3 (Reference: Rules of TN Board of PT 1150-01-.02(2)(c))

(c) A physical therapist may concurrently supervise no more than the equivalent of three full - time physical therapist assistants.A physical therapist may concurrently supervise no more than the equivalent of two(2) full - time assistive personnel or physical therapy aides.A physical therapist assistant may concurrently supervise no more than the equivalent of two(2) full - time physical therapy aides.
Yes Yes
Texas Professional Judgment (Reference: TX Admin Rules §322.3.(a)) Yes Yes
Utah 3 (Reference: Utah R156-24b-503.(1)) Yes Yes
Vermont 3 (Reference: VT Admin Rules 3.4(d)(1-2))

PTs are allowed to supervised up to 4 PTAs simultaneously, but may not supervise more than 3 of a mixed group of aides, physical therapist students, physical therapist assistant students, and/or temporary licensees.
Yes Yes Yes Yes
Virgin Islands 2 (Reference: USVI Rules 7(C )1.(G)c)) Yes
Virginia 3 (Reference: 18 VAC 112-20-100.C) Yes Yes
Washington No Supervision Ratio
Wisconsin 4 (Reference: WI Admin Code PT 5.02(2)(k))

The maximum number of PTAs to be supervised is 2.
Yes Yes Yes
Wyoming 5 (Reference: WY Admin Code Chapter 7 Section 7)

A PT may not supervise more than 3 aides. A PTA may not supervise more than 2 aides.
Yes Yes
Iowa 2 (Reference: IA Admin Code 645-200.6(1) e) Yes

PT may supervise not more than the equivalent of two full-time PTAs, not to exceed four part-time PTAs who are providing physical therapy per calendar day, including supervision by telecommunication